EIGRP – unequal cost load balancing, support for networks 255 hhops away, rapid convergence

DUAL – diffusing update algorithm to identify paths

Router can run multiple EIGRP processes separated by AS number. Autonomous System

PDM – protocol dependent modules to support multiple network protocols

– successor route – route w/lowest path metric
– successor – first next hop router for successor route
– feasible distance – metric value for lowest metric path to reach destination
– reported distance – distance reported by router ot reach prefix
– feasibility condition – for route to be considered a backup route
– feasibility successor – a route that satisfies feasibility condition maintained as backup route

Topology Table
– network prefix
– EIGRP neighbors that advertise prefix
– metrics from each neighbor
– values used for calculating metric

EIGRP Packet Types
– Hello
– Request
– Update
– Query
– Reply

RTP – reliable transport protocol ensure packets are delivered

EIGRP forms neighbors
– Requires neighbor relationship before routes are processed and added to RIB

Matches Required for Neighborship
– metric formula K values
– primary subnet
– AS number match
– authentication

2 Methods Classic and Named
Classic – most config in process, some under interface
Named – hierarchy – address family, interface, topology,

passive interface – enabled w/routing protocol to advertise its interface into RIB but does not establish neighborship with other routers associated w/interface

authentication – authenticated routers become eigrp neighbors encrypt with md5 authentication w/keychain key # and password

wide metric – advertising and identifying interface speeds and delay accounts for higher metrics

load balancing – allows multiple successors to be installed into rib

unequal cost load balancing must change variance multiplier

variance value – fd for a route multiplied by eigrp variance multiplier

failure detection
– default timers 5 sec, 60 on slow
– hold timers 15 sec, 180 on slow

stuck in active
– if router receives no response within 90 sec

summerization – reducing routing table by advertising less specific network prefix than multiple more specific network prefixes

summary discard routes – routing loop prevention

summerization metrics – lowest metric of component routes

stub router – advertise all other neighbors isolated should not be queried when routes go active

stub site router – advertises to all other upstream neighbors that are isolated

eigrp max available bandwidth 50% and 50% for data

split horizon – prevents advertisements of reverse routes enabled by default

offset list – modify metric value of route

Neighborship Might Not Form If…
– int down
– mismatched as numbers
– incorrect network statement
– mismatched K value
– passive interface
– different subnets
– authentication
– Timers

ACL may be denying EIGRP multicast address


FF02::A mutlicast link local
classic and named
router id
on interface
no concept of classless/classfull
default route ::/0

DHCP, DHCPv6, IP Routing

Discover – broadcast messages
Offer – server responds with this
Request – client responds with request to use what’s offered
Ack – serrver acknowledges that it is leased

ip helper – address to configure router to replay dhcp messages to server
service dhcp
interface _______
ip helper-address x.x.x.x

ip dhcp excluded – address x.x.x.x x.x.x.x
prevents DHCP from assigning those ip address

ip dhcp pool POOL-A
creates pool which hands out ip addresses in POOL-A

169 ip address means problem
APIPA – IPv4 address when server unavailable possibly a layer 2 issue /16


neighbor discovery – IPv6 protocol for address auto config, duplicate addresses, detection, router, neighbor, prefix discovery, neighbor address resolution, parameter discovery

EUI-64 – 1st half of mac address, 7th bit flipped, FFFE, last half of mac address

SLAAC – enables device to configure its own IPv6 address and default gateway without DHCPv6 server
Cisco Routers enable manually on interface

IPv6 address autoconfig

Router Solicitation – messages to determine whether there are any routes connected to local link then wait for

Router Advertisement – to identify prefix used by router (default gateway)

Stateless DHCPv6

Routers RA – used by clients to automatically determine IPv6 address

DHCPv6 Operation
Solicit – sends FF02 which is all DHCPv6 multicast addresss
Advertise – server responds with unicast messages to offer ip address info
Request – client sends this confirming address provided and parameters
Reply – server finalized w/this message

DHCPv6 Relay Agents – relays solicit messages to DHCPv6 server in different IPv6 network

Packet Forwarding – forwarding packets through router, ip routing

Layer 3 to Layer 2 mapping found in arp cache

ARP – used on ethernet lan by devices to determine layer 2 mac of known layer 3 ip address

FIB contians layer 3 info similar to ip routing table

Adjacency table contains frame header info required by router used by CEF stores layer 3 addressing for all FIB entrires

CEF – cleans info from routing table and layer 3 to layer 2 mappsings

control plain – protocols between routers

data plane – process forwards packets through multilayer switch

AD – used to maniupulate path selection

Static route – manualy configured by admin using ip route or IPV6 route command

proxy arp – allows router to respond to ARP requests with its own mac address if it has route in routing table to ip address in arp request


Standard VLAN range is 1-1005
Vlan1 – default ethernet access vlan and default 802.1q, native vlan
can not be deleted but can be manually pruned from trunks
can not be pruned by VTP (vlan trunking protocol)
should not be used for actual port assignments

VLANs 1002-1005
default legacy token ring, fddi vlans
can not be deleted but can be manually pruned from trunks
can not be pruned by VTP
should not be used for actual port assignments

Extended VLANS
range 1006-4094
normally used for transparent mode or VTP version 3
Not all extended vlans can be used, some are reserved for internal use

Internal VLANS
reserved for internal applications, native layer 3 switchports
sh vl intern usa
Not all platforms agree on internal range, for deployments, check internal allocations, some allocate ascending, some descending

New Years Celebration with Art, Dance, Completed Route, Now NO Time to Lose, SWITCH Time! Thanks Mr. Bulldog (Chris Bryant Videos)

Celebrated the New Years with some Sweet Soca Music. I love colors and decorated up a dress because I could not find a colorful dress in the store, I kind of get last minute with things and would normally order online. Crunch time… two nights before created my dress. Family emergency and then went to work, then partied hard in my personalized, one of a kind dress.


I have received some tough, tough news. I passed ROUTE! Crunch time. Passed Route, have to Pass Switch ASAP in order to get something out of the fact that I passed route. I never wanted success in an educational endeavor as bad as this crunch time. I have some stories about a Full Sail Math Entry Exam for Game Development Degree. I could tell you about later too.

Funny thing, I did not believe i was going to pass when I went in. I was also wearing the same dress I wore when I passed my CCNA.

Big hint for labs.

copy [tab] run [tab] start [tab]

metric 1 1 1 1


Congratulations to me! Yay, I passed. Same say, must begin studying Switch. No breaks allowed.


On my way, I picked up these:

mist locationmist wifi

And Before that I picked up this:


I was working on JNCIA, I love Juniper, but I need to stay focused on my goal. I need to get my Cisco Tiara.

Cisco Certified Networking Princess.

and then

Cisco Certified Networking Empress 

Okay I need to stop playing around and here is my study journey for switch so far!

Now I will drop my study notes for switch…… It is a mess but it’s literally copy paste of my notes.


When you change the default Template you must reload. Switch will tell you so make sure you do it or you will see desktop or what was previously there.

sdm prefer vlan

then have to reload

if you do show sdm prefer it will be with the old one

Must reload


Leave auto-negotiation alone.



Fast Link Pulses


DTP should be disabled for security reasons.

Unconditional trunking mode and then turn dtp off


ports in auto encap mode can’t be configured to trunk mode, show int trunk port negotiate, if make trunk port, unconditional trunk port, gotta make it negotiate.


do not debug ip packet if on busy network



you do not want jitter.

can be 802.111q or access


portfast automatically enabled



vtp modes

server mode – create delete modify

client – can not configure vtp vlan in client mode

transparent – not participating in vtp domain, not sync vtp database and do not advertise their own, locally significant

off – antimode, disabling vtp on switch.


Configuration revision number, latest revision and not rewriting from older

Ignores older revision.

Can’t just reboot, if you going to do it, set to zero if you add a new one to it.



VTP Pruning

Trunk ports are members of all our vlans

broadcast, multicasts, and unknown unicasts

overhead on each



identify loop free path, chose best path for use block ports for less desired unblock necessary for next best

first thing switch look at on frame, source mac address

how it builds mac address table.



root port in forwarding

alternate in blocking

you will know you are on root

WhatsApp Image 2020-01-05 at 3.07.10 PMroot


Path Cost

Physical shortest path is not always logically the shortest path. Look at Links


Load Balancing Per VLAN basis

cost command is all or nothing

change cost for some vlans and leave alone for others?



Blocking, Listening, Learning, Disabled, Forwarding



Uplink fast only on access level switches

backbone fast helps network recover from indirect linkfast


Reviewing STP again because it made me nervous.


Portfast allows a port running STP to go directly from blocking mode to forwarding mode.

spanning portfast or spanning portfast disable

Portfast should only be enabled to ports connected to a single host.

Uplinkfast– port goes through blocking to forwarding transition without delay

Uplinkfast only on access layer switches.

spanning uplinkfast

backbonefast – cisco proprietary, used for network to recover indirect link failures, skips max age stage which cuts the delay

root guard – configured at port level and disqualifies any switch downstream from port becoming primary or secondary root

BPDU Guard – takes rootguard 1 step forward. when any bpdu comes in, error disabled state. shut port down

UDLD – BPDU may not arrive at their destination because of a unidirectional link where sw1 can send to sw2 but can’t send bpdu back over the same conenciton. UDLD enabled port sends a frame across the link every 15 seconds by default.

RSTP – rapid spanning tree protocol. an extension of 802.1d defined by ieee 802.1w

alt – alerternate port, on shared segment.

difference between stp and rstp port states

– blocking
– listening
– learning
– forwarding

 – discarding
– learning
– forwarding

Edge Ports and Point to Point Port

STP – Half Duplex are shared ports

RSTP Edge port – spanning tree port fast
BPDU on edge port demoted to regular RSTP port

spanning-tree mode rapid-pvst

p2p is point ot point

p2p peer stp is running regular stp


PVST+ – per vlan spanning tree version (cisco proprietary) not extra work for cpu

requires isl trunking

dot1q is trunking protocol using a common interface of STP for all vlans. MST allows us to reduce the number of STP instances without knocking it all the way back to 1

MST was designed for enterprise networks. map multiple vlans to lesser number of stp instances.

logically deciding switches into region. agree on mst config name, revision number, vlan mapping table

cst covers entire network, mst is subset of network. ist instance that is responsible for keeping everything inside loop free

must be in mst config mode to see “show pending”



Etherchannel – logical bundling of two to eight parallel links running between two switches. aggregation. use more of our available bandwidth and avoid 50-second delay that max age and forward delay timers

STP considers etherchannel to be a single link regardless of how many physical links there are.



Bollywood Magic 2019

Bollywood Magic 2019 was quite the experience. I am not experienced with Bollywood Style Dance but was asked to join the group. Our dance was very unique because we did a Fusion of Bollywood Style and Indonesian Dance Style It was a lot of fun and learned a lot.

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Audition Attempt and Raw Video Clips

Dancing Audition

Never did something like this before. I had a lot of fun doing this. I have to say a huge thanks to some very supportive people in my life. My boyfriend, Randall Greer helped alter the costume to fit me for the video. He was also my dancing partner and a camera man. He drove me to the places to shoot the video. My sister, Roshani Narine helped provide feedback and coaching the practice. My friend Elizabeth Mccafferty, spent a lot of time giving feedback on the dancing and the costumes, and shooting some of the videos too. I appreciate the time, effort, and support they put into this to help make this happen.