EIGRP – unequal cost load balancing, support for networks 255 hhops away, rapid convergence
DUAL – diffusing update algorithm to identify paths
Router can run multiple EIGRP processes separated by AS number. Autonomous System
PDM – protocol dependent modules to support multiple network protocols
EIGRP KEY TERMS
– successor route – route w/lowest path metric
– successor – first next hop router for successor route
– feasible distance – metric value for lowest metric path to reach destination
– reported distance – distance reported by router ot reach prefix
– feasibility condition – for route to be considered a backup route
– feasibility successor – a route that satisfies feasibility condition maintained as backup route
– network prefix
– EIGRP neighbors that advertise prefix
– metrics from each neighbor
– values used for calculating metric
EIGRP Packet Types
RTP – reliable transport protocol ensure packets are delivered
EIGRP forms neighbors
– Requires neighbor relationship before routes are processed and added to RIB
Matches Required for Neighborship
– metric formula K values
– primary subnet
– AS number match
2 Methods Classic and Named
Classic – most config in process, some under interface
Named – hierarchy – address family, interface, topology,
passive interface – enabled w/routing protocol to advertise its interface into RIB but does not establish neighborship with other routers associated w/interface
authentication – authenticated routers become eigrp neighbors encrypt with md5 authentication w/keychain key # and password
wide metric – advertising and identifying interface speeds and delay accounts for higher metrics
load balancing – allows multiple successors to be installed into rib
unequal cost load balancing must change variance multiplier
variance value – fd for a route multiplied by eigrp variance multiplier
– default timers 5 sec, 60 on slow
– hold timers 15 sec, 180 on slow
stuck in active
– if router receives no response within 90 sec
summerization – reducing routing table by advertising less specific network prefix than multiple more specific network prefixes
summary discard routes – routing loop prevention
summerization metrics – lowest metric of component routes
stub router – advertise all other neighbors isolated should not be queried when routes go active
stub site router – advertises to all other upstream neighbors that are isolated
eigrp max available bandwidth 50% and 50% for data
split horizon – prevents advertisements of reverse routes enabled by default
offset list – modify metric value of route
Neighborship Might Not Form If…
– int down
– mismatched as numbers
– incorrect network statement
– mismatched K value
– passive interface
– different subnets
ACL may be denying EIGRP multicast address 18.104.22.168
FF02::A mutlicast link local
classic and named
no concept of classless/classfull
default route ::/0
DHCP Steps – DORA
Discover – broadcast messages
Offer – server responds with this
Request – client responds with request to use what’s offered
Ack – serrver acknowledges that it is leased
ip helper – address to configure router to replay dhcp messages to server
ip helper-address x.x.x.x
ip dhcp excluded – address x.x.x.x x.x.x.x
prevents DHCP from assigning those ip address
ip dhcp pool POOL-A
creates pool which hands out ip addresses in POOL-A
169 ip address means problem
APIPA – IPv4 address when server unavailable possibly a layer 2 issue
neighbor discovery – IPv6 protocol for address auto config, duplicate addresses, detection, router, neighbor, prefix discovery, neighbor address resolution, parameter discovery
EUI-64 – 1st half of mac address, 7th bit flipped, FFFE, last half of mac address
SLAAC – enables device to configure its own IPv6 address and default gateway without DHCPv6 server
Cisco Routers enable manually on interface
IPv6 address autoconfig
Router Solicitation – messages to determine whether there are any routes connected to local link then wait for
Router Advertisement – to identify prefix used by router (default gateway)
Routers RA – used by clients to automatically determine IPv6 address
Solicit – sends FF02 which is all DHCPv6 multicast addresss
Advertise – server responds with unicast messages to offer ip address info
Request – client sends this confirming address provided and parameters
Reply – server finalized w/this message
DHCPv6 Relay Agents – relays solicit messages to DHCPv6 server in different IPv6 network
Packet Forwarding – forwarding packets through router, ip routing
Layer 3 to Layer 2 mapping found in arp cache
ARP – used on ethernet lan by devices to determine layer 2 mac of known layer 3 ip address
FIB contians layer 3 info similar to ip routing table
Adjacency table contains frame header info required by router used by CEF stores layer 3 addressing for all FIB entrires
CEF – cleans info from routing table and layer 3 to layer 2 mappsings
control plain – protocols between routers
data plane – process forwards packets through multilayer switch
AD – used to maniupulate path selection
Static route – manualy configured by admin using ip route or IPV6 route command
proxy arp – allows router to respond to ARP requests with its own mac address if it has route in routing table to ip address in arp request
STP Root Bridge, Root Port, Path Selections, STP Timers:
Lowest Bridge ID becomes Root Bridge
Bridge Priority, System ID Extension, MAC Address
Standard VLAN range is 1-1005
Vlan1 – default ethernet access vlan and default 802.1q, native vlan
can not be deleted but can be manually pruned from trunks
can not be pruned by VTP (vlan trunking protocol)
should not be used for actual port assignments
default legacy token ring, fddi vlans
can not be deleted but can be manually pruned from trunks
can not be pruned by VTP
should not be used for actual port assignments
normally used for transparent mode or VTP version 3
Not all extended vlans can be used, some are reserved for internal use
reserved for internal applications, native layer 3 switchports
sh vl intern usa
Not all platforms agree on internal range, for deployments, check internal allocations, some allocate ascending, some descending
Enabled by default on some platforms
DTP Desirable Mode – initiate trunking negotiation,
sw mo dyn des
sw mo tru
DTP Auto Mode – passively listen for trunking negotiation
sw mo dyn aut
Celebrated the New Years with some Sweet Soca Music. I love colors and decorated up a dress because I could not find a colorful dress in the store, I kind of get last minute with things and would normally order online. Crunch time… two nights before created my dress. Family emergency and then went to work, then partied hard in my personalized, one of a kind dress.
I have received some tough, tough news. I passed ROUTE! Crunch time. Passed Route, have to Pass Switch ASAP in order to get something out of the fact that I passed route. I never wanted success in an educational endeavor as bad as this crunch time. I have some stories about a Full Sail Math Entry Exam for Game Development Degree. I could tell you about later too.
Funny thing, I did not believe i was going to pass when I went in. I was also wearing the same dress I wore when I passed my CCNA.
Big hint for labs.
copy [tab] run [tab] start [tab]
metric 1 1 1 1
Congratulations to me! Yay, I passed. Same say, must begin studying Switch. No breaks allowed.
On my way, I picked up these:
And Before that I picked up this:
I was working on JNCIA, I love Juniper, but I need to stay focused on my goal. I need to get my Cisco Tiara.
Cisco Certified Networking Princess.
Cisco Certified Networking Empress
Okay I need to stop playing around and here is my study journey for switch so far!
Now I will drop my study notes for switch…… It is a mess but it’s literally copy paste of my notes.
When you change the default Template you must reload. Switch will tell you so make sure you do it or you will see desktop or what was previously there.
sdm prefer vlan
then have to reload
if you do show sdm prefer it will be with the old one
Leave auto-negotiation alone.
Fast Link Pulses
DTP should be disabled for security reasons.
Unconditional trunking mode and then turn dtp off
ports in auto encap mode can’t be configured to trunk mode, show int trunk port negotiate, if make trunk port, unconditional trunk port, gotta make it negotiate.
do not debug ip packet if on busy network
you do not want jitter.
can be 802.111q or access
portfast automatically enabled
server mode – create delete modify
client – can not configure vtp vlan in client mode
transparent – not participating in vtp domain, not sync vtp database and do not advertise their own, locally significant
off – antimode, disabling vtp on switch.
Configuration revision number, latest revision and not rewriting from older
Ignores older revision.
Can’t just reboot, if you going to do it, set to zero if you add a new one to it.
Trunk ports are members of all our vlans
broadcast, multicasts, and unknown unicasts
overhead on each
identify loop free path, chose best path for use block ports for less desired unblock necessary for next best
first thing switch look at on frame, source mac address
how it builds mac address table.
root port in forwarding
alternate in blocking
you will know you are on root
Physical shortest path is not always logically the shortest path. Look at Links
Load Balancing Per VLAN basis
cost command is all or nothing
change cost for some vlans and leave alone for others?
Blocking, Listening, Learning, Disabled, Forwarding
Uplink fast only on access level switches
backbone fast helps network recover from indirect linkfast
Reviewing STP again because it made me nervous.
Portfast allows a port running STP to go directly from blocking mode to forwarding mode.
spanning portfast or spanning portfast disable
Portfast should only be enabled to ports connected to a single host.
Uplinkfast– port goes through blocking to forwarding transition without delay
Uplinkfast only on access layer switches.
backbonefast – cisco proprietary, used for network to recover indirect link failures, skips max age stage which cuts the delay
root guard – configured at port level and disqualifies any switch downstream from port becoming primary or secondary root
BPDU Guard – takes rootguard 1 step forward. when any bpdu comes in, error disabled state. shut port down
UDLD – BPDU may not arrive at their destination because of a unidirectional link where sw1 can send to sw2 but can’t send bpdu back over the same conenciton. UDLD enabled port sends a frame across the link every 15 seconds by default.
RSTP – rapid spanning tree protocol. an extension of 802.1d defined by ieee 802.1w
alt – alerternate port, on shared segment.
difference between stp and rstp port states
Edge Ports and Point to Point Port
STP – Half Duplex are shared ports
RSTP Edge port – spanning tree port fast
BPDU on edge port demoted to regular RSTP port
spanning-tree mode rapid-pvst
p2p is point ot point
p2p peer stp is running regular stp
PVST+ – per vlan spanning tree version (cisco proprietary) not extra work for cpu
requires isl trunking
dot1q is trunking protocol using a common interface of STP for all vlans. MST allows us to reduce the number of STP instances without knocking it all the way back to 1
MST was designed for enterprise networks. map multiple vlans to lesser number of stp instances.
logically deciding switches into region. agree on mst config name, revision number, vlan mapping table
cst covers entire network, mst is subset of network. ist instance that is responsible for keeping everything inside loop free
must be in mst config mode to see “show pending”
Etherchannel – logical bundling of two to eight parallel links running between two switches. aggregation. use more of our available bandwidth and avoid 50-second delay that max age and forward delay timers
STP considers etherchannel to be a single link regardless of how many physical links there are.
Bollywood Magic 2019 was quite the experience. I am not experienced with Bollywood Style Dance but was asked to join the group. Our dance was very unique because we did a Fusion of Bollywood Style and Indonesian Dance Style It was a lot of fun and learned a lot.
Never did something like this before. I had a lot of fun doing this. I have to say a huge thanks to some very supportive people in my life. My boyfriend, Randall Greer helped alter the costume to fit me for the video. He was also my dancing partner and a camera man. He drove me to the places to shoot the video. My sister, Roshani Narine helped provide feedback and coaching the practice. My friend Elizabeth Mccafferty, spent a lot of time giving feedback on the dancing and the costumes, and shooting some of the videos too. I appreciate the time, effort, and support they put into this to help make this happen.